1960's.

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John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Born: May 29, 1917
Death: November 22, 1963
President of the United States of America

In the 1960’s John Fitzgerald Kennedy was a huge leader to the people. As our 35th president he accomplished a lot of what our future became today. In 1960 the first presidential debate televised was held between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon. Because of the debate being televised peoples’ minds were changed about Kennedy. In 1961 JFK moved into the white house and gave his famous speech “Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country”. He fought in WW2 which started on January 20th and was known as the second youngest president at the age of 43. He was also the first and only Catholic president the U.S. has had and also the first Irish American. He was also the only president that won a Pulitzer Prize which is a prize that is awarded for achievements in literature, newspaper journalism and musical composition.
Events during his presidency include the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and the early times of the Vietnam War. Many programs that he started were the Equal opportunities Act which was set up to end discrimination in work places, Elementary and Secondary School Act to pass school reform and help kids be more educated so they can get jobs, Medicare/Medicaid helps people attain Medicare even if you aren’t able to afford it. Medicare is for the elderly and handicapped and Medicaid is for the poor and all ages. He also had the idea of Head Start was for little kids that economically was a disadvantage for kids to get started, The Job Corp (CETA) a job training for employment that helps get a job for whatever you train for, Upward Bound was for kids who wanted to go to college, and the Affirmative Action was set up because some people didn’t care about other programs. On May 25th, Kennedy wanted to send a man up to the moon and back before the decade was over. It was accomplished after his death. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Kennedy’s assassin was thought to be Lee Harvey Oswald but he was never sent to trial. To this day no one knows for sure who killed John F. Kennedy.


Ho Chi Mihn


Leading into the 1960’s the armed revolution begins as Ho Chi Mihn declares a People’s War to unite all of Vietnam under his leadership. Ho became president of North Vietnam and organizes underground communist activity. Ho also oversaw the formation of the National Liberation Front (NLF) in 1960, a movement against the non communist government of southern Vietnam. Arms and guerrillas moved down the Ho Chi Minh Trail into the south. Eventually The Trail comprised twelve thousand miles of roads and paths. He was determined to reunite both North and South Vietnam under communist rule.

Clashes between South Vietnam and the NLF led the United States Military to step in on the side of the South Vietnamese. As the American military commitment increased, with the arrival of American ground troops and the beginning of a heavy bombing campaign against northern Vietnam in 1965, Ho sought to maintain good relations with the Soviet Union and China in order to obtain military assistance and supplies from both Communist powers.
Beginning in the mid-1960s, Ho Chi Minh's health declined, and he made only occasional public appearances. He never married, but he was widely viewed in North Vietnam as the father of his country and often referred to in his later years as Bac (Uncle) Ho. He died of a heart attack on September 3, 1969, almost six years before the South Vietnamese government was defeated and Vietnam was unified. The city of Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor.
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Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson was born August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973. Johnson was born near Stonewall, Texas in a small farm house by Pedermales River. His parents were Samuel Ealy Johnson, Jr. (Father) and Rebekah Baines (Mother). Johnson has 3 sisters and a brother, Lyndon was the oldest of his siblings. His brother’s name was Sam Houston Johnson, sisters names were Rebekah, Josefa, and Luica.
Johnson’s early political career started as a public speaker and debater in a Huston High School, and then entered Politics. Johnson’s father served 5 terms in Texas as a Legislator and was a close friend to congressmen Sam Rayburn, who was a rising political figure in Texas. 1930, Johnson was campaigned with Texas Sates Senator Welly Hopkins in the run for congress. Johnsons was then appointed to congressmen Richard M. Kleberg and names Johnson as Kleberg's Legislative secretary. He was them elected as a “Small Speaker” for a group of Congressional aides, where he promoted Congressmen, newspapermen and lobbyists with his public speaking. Johnson soon included aides to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and fellow Texan’s such as Vice President
John Nance Garner.
In December 1941, the U.S. entered in to the American was and Johnson, still in congress became a commissioned officer in the Naval Reserve. After he was commissioned officer, his career took off. He was awarded the
Silver Star, the military's third-highest medal, 1948, Johnson again ran for the Senate and won, was named Vice President by John F. Kennedy. Some people stated the Kennedy didn’t want Johnson to be his running man and didn’t mean to ask him. Mean while all this was going on, Johnson was running for his third term in senate and won. In January 3, 1961 Johnson was re-elected senator with 58% vote and after the election, Johnson felt powerless. Even though Kennedy was trying to keep Johnson busy, Johnson still kept pushing Kennedy about the Civil Rights Act and the black voters in the south.
November 22, 1963 John F. Kennedy was assassinated by
Lee Harvey Oswald; Kennedy was shot in the head and died at the hospital. Two hours and eight minutes after Kennedy’s death, Johnson was sworn into presidency and was also the only president sworn from Texas soil. September 7, 1964 Johnson was elected president by a landslide with 61% of the vote (a record to this day). During Johnsons presidency he tried to get the southern states involved in the voting but had conflict. The southern states were controlled by whites, who wouldn’t let the blacks vote; they would threaten them with their lives if they were to vote. Despite Johnsons efforts and his huge landslide, he couldn’t win the southern states over.

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Born: January 3, 1901
Died: November 2, 1963
President and prime minister of South Vietnam


Ngo Dihn Diem was born on January 3,1901 into a well-known Roman Catholic family of his time. He was a civil servant of World War II. In 1954, Ngo Dinh Diem started his political career by becoming the prime minister of South Vietnam. His ministry only lasted 3 months due to the fact that Diem resigned after learning that the French wouldn’t follow his rule. At this same time, Bo Dai was the emperor of Vietnam and when Ngo came into power, the South Vietnamese people were faced with a decision. Whose side were they on; The prime minister or the emperor? Voters arrived to the voting stations and a large percentage of them were on Ngo Dihn Diem’s side. The election was taken by Diem when he received 98.2% of the vote. Over the next seven years, the start of his presidency, Ngo dealt with a exceedingly corrupt, and restrictive society . Initially in his presidency, Diem made progress however; some thought that he favored his family of Roman Catholics more than he did Buddhists, which was a prominent religion at this time.
Coming into power in 1954, Ngo Diem dealt with a newly divided Vietnam. He controlled the South. Opposing communism, the United States backed the South going into the Vietnam war. Although the United States aided the south in opposing communism, the Vietnamese people slowly began to rethink their decision in calling Diem into power. Ngo Dihn Diem was known for his corrupt, ineffective and sometimes brutal government. Although Diem was against all odds and he wasn’t favored by most Vietnamese people, the president implemented the
Geneva cease-fire agreement. This was implemented almost immediately after his election. The Geneva cease-fire agreement is implimented to respect and faithfully satisfy the agreements that were reached between the parties in order to stop war and reconstruct Burundi. After the agreement was put into place, Ngo wanted to accomplish his major goal of uniting South Vietnamese people against communism. JFK soon found out that this goal was not attainable. Several attempts had been made to overthrow Diem due to him not succeeding, however, the CIA and secret services were ordererd to protect him under JFK’s request. This was a major event in the 1960s that altered the outcome of future events. In 1963, Diem was overthrown and instead of leaving the country as he was promised by military officials, he was killed. Ngo Dihn Diem’s term ended and he was soon replaced by Nguyen Van Thieu, the chief of staff of the Armed Forces of South Vietnam.

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1960s

“If you can remember anything about the 60’s then you weren’t really there.”

The decade known as “The Sixties” was a decade of turbulent and drastic change, not only in the United States but it was a whirl wind of change for the entire world. The decade started with the introduction of recreational drug use and casual sex, which quickly became part of the counterculture of the era. Besides the major culture shock in the 1960s, multiple governments took a major turn for the worst. In 1961, John F Kennedy, an anti communist, was elected president in the United States. Beginning his presidency with countless positives and advancements, his term lasted for a short 2 years when he was assassinated on November 22, 1963. The death of nations president not only shocked the people of our nation, but it made everyone feel like they had just loved a loved one, and they didn’t know where or who to turn to. Although the president died before his term ended, he made the time that he did spend in office memorable. He started many programs and initiated many events that he was unable to finish however; they made their mark on history. Civil Rights movement, Space Race, Alliance for Progress, Peace Corps, and the civil rights act of 1963 was started by JFK. The president not only dealt with domestic issues but also with foreign issues such as the Bay of Pigs which took place in April of 1961 and the Berlin Wall which was put up in August of 1961. The Cuban Missile Crisis started in October of 1962 and lasted 13 days.
Shortly after the death of John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded in the presidency of 1963. His term lasted until 1969. His major role was to finish was Kennedy had originally started. The Great Society was brought upon by LBJ, as well as The War on Poverty which was a war to eliminate poverty.
There were multiple programs and new opportunities that took root in the mid 1960s as well. The Equal Opportunity Act, Medicare/Medicaid, and CETA are just a few of those programs. Overall, there programs were designed to help everyone live a better life, whether it was children, adults or elders, these programs benefited everyone.
The Vietnam War took place in the 1960s and March 8, 1965 was the first time that troops were sent to Vietnam. South Vietnam was a democratic society and North Vietnam was a communist society. Eventually in 1969 when Nixon was elected, in March of 1973 the last event of the war took place. Although the Vietnam War was often times called “The war in your living room,” when Nixon was elected president, he took charge and slowly but surely removed US troops from the country.
The 1960s was an era full of age, youth, and new trends. Some good, a lot bad, but most of all, the 1960 is one of the most memorable decades in history. Our nation was put through many trials and tribulations that ultimately lead to strength at home.


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Hippies

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Bibliography:
Duden, Jane. "The Groovy 1960s." kyrene.org. N.p., 1 June 2010. Web. 3 June
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"1960." Wikipedia.com. N.p., 2 June 2010. Web. 3 June 2010.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1960>.

Hillstrom, Kevin, and Laurie Collier Hillstrom. "Ngo Dinh Diem Biography." Vietnam War Biographies. Ed. Diane Sawinski and Allison McNeill. UXL-GALE, 2001. eNotes.com. 2006. 3 Jun, 2010 http://www.enotes.com/vietnam-war-biographies/diem-ngo-dinh
"Ngo Dinh Diem ." vietnamgear.com. N.p., June 2005. Web. 3 June 2010.
<http://www.vietnamgear.com/bio/5.aspx>.
"Lyndon B Johnson." wikipedia.com. N.p., June 2004. Web. 3 June 2010.
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_B._Johnson>.